Barnes (Conway) House

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Survey Number: HPS-353
Year Built: 1940
Architectural Style: Early Transitional Ranch


BACKGROUND + STATUS:
The historic 1940 Barnes (Conway) House is located at the southern extent of the original Townsite, in the 1924 Park Tract subdivision. Tempe had been experiencing a housing shortage for some time and development of Park Tract was intended to provide comfortable and modern family housing to meet this pent-up demand. Similarly, the Early Ranch style house was designed to help fulfill requirements for affordable and efficient housing. The historic 1940 Barnes (Conway) House is located on Lot 7 of Block 6 of the Park Tract Subdivision. Block 6 is a full-block located at the southern edge of the subdivision at the boundary extent of the original 1888 townsite. Lot 7 is at the northwest corner of Block 6 in the very heart of Park Tract.[i]

Park Tract Subdivision is identified as a Cultural Resource Area in Tempe General Plan 2030. These areas are considered culturally significant to the character of Tempe and General Plan 2030 states that it is desirable to maintain the character of these areas. General Plan 2030 further states that the underlying zoning in place at the time the plan was adopted should remain as the highest appropriate density for Cultural Resource Areas. Accordingly, Cultural Resource Areas are indicated on the GP2030 Projected Land Use Map with the density of the zoning in place at the time the plan was adopted on December 4, 2003. The subdivision of Park Tract predated adoption of a zoning ordinance by the Tempe Town Council. This property is zoned R-3R: Multi-Family Residential (height) Restricted.[ii] [iii]

Park Tract today is part of Tempe's Maple Ash Neighborhood, which consists of three subdivisions: Gage Addition (1909), Park Tract (1924), and College View (1945). This area contains the largest concentration of historic resources in the city. The area is adjacent to downtown Tempe, Arizona State University, and Tempe St. Luke's Hospital, each of which have exerted pressure on the historic integrity of the neighborhood at various times in the past. Today these properties are zoned multi-family and many of the owners are interested in redeveloping their properties. Without some kind of control, local preservation advocates see the historic character of the neighborhood eroding and the potential for listing Tempe’s oldest remaining residential neighborhood in National Register of Historic Places in jeopardy. After an attempt at creating an historic district failed in 2006, in 2007 the Arizona Preservation Foundation placed Tempe’s Maple Ash Neighborhood on Arizona's Most Endangered Historic Places List. Subsequently, many property owners have acted to list their properties individually on the Tempe and National historic registers.[iv]

CONDITION
The historic 1940 Barnes (Conway) House has been meticulously maintained. The historic front façade has been carefully preserved and remains intact. In addition, the historic flood irrigated landscape is thoughtfully tended, and the property makes a positive contribution to the streetscape of the historic subdivision. Changes made to the property are visible on the exterior at the north and east (rear) elevations. Modifications have occurred over time, yet these have been sensitively designed and skillfully executed to achieve a comfortable balance of differentiation from, and compatibility with, the historic form and fabric of the Early Ranch style house.

AGE
The historic 1940 Barnes (Conway) House is in the upper ninety-ninth percentile (n = 251/53,665 = 99.53) of Tempe properties in terms of age. HPO records indicate 84 extant properties date to 1940 (60 percent more than the number of properties in any single prior year of the 64 years for which records exist). In Tempe, 1935 marked the first occurrence of the Early Ranch as a residential style; by 1940 the style had largely yielded to the more evolved expression of the ranch form. The Barnes (Conway) House is one of only two Early Ranch style residences believed by the Tempe Historic Preservation Office to survive from 1940. Based on data from Tempe HPO files corroborated by Maricopa County Assessor’s Office data, 250 standing properties are believed to predate the historic 1940 Barnes (Conway) House having year-built dates in Tempe of 1939 or earlier. Statistically, this property is in the top 99.5% of all Tempe properties in terms of age and therefore can be considered to survive as a rare example of early residential construction in Tempe.[v]

SIGNIFICANCE
The historic 1940 Barnes (Conway) House survives as a significant representative of a once common type—the Early Ranch style house. Ranch style residences became ubiquitous throughout the American Southwest in the era following World War II. The historic 1940 Barnes (Conway) House, however, was constructed before the style became widely popular. The property is significant as one of the few 1940 Early Ranch style houses in Tempe.[vi]

Built on the eve of U.S. involvement in World War II, the house exemplifies characteristic features of the early form, combining elements of both past and future styles. This house is a good example of the Transitional or Early Ranch due to its raised floor and the dominant chimney, something not seen on many of the later houses in the area. The small box-like house has the characteristic L-shaped plan with a low pitched gable end asphalt shingle roof, raised wood floor with crawlspace, covered front porch, rectangular window openings with steel casement windows divided to emphasize the horizontal dimension, and stucco siding and gable ends. Typical of the type, ornamental detailing is minimal and limited to the dominant chimney, along with typically modest detailing of wood framing of the porch. Also true to the type, stylistic treatment of materials and details occurs evenly on all sides of the building. The public faces of the property have changed little from their original configuration, when this Early Ranch style house first made an important addition to the neighborhood. The historic 1940 Barnes (Conway) House continues to convey the architectural qualities of design, workmanship, materials, and feeling.[vii]

A basis for historic designation and listing in the Tempe Historic Property Register is provided by Tempe City Code Section 14A-4(a)(1) – Designation of landmarks, historic properties and historic districts: the following criteria are established for designation of an individual property, building, structure, or archeological site: It meets the criteria for listing on the Arizona or national register of historic places.[viii]

Tempe Historic Preservation Ordinance language agrees with National Register of Historic Places eligibility criteria C, which states:

“The quality of significance in American history, architecture, archaeology, engineering, and culture is present in districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects that possess integrity of location, design, setting, materials, workmanship, feeling, and association, and:’

C. “That embody the distinctive characteristics of a type, period, or method of construction, or that represent the work of a master, or that possess high artistic values, or that represent a significant and distinguishable entity whose components may lack individual distinction.”[ix]

The historic 1940 Barnes (Conway) House is significant as one of the best remaining examples of Early Ranch style houses in Tempe. The property embodies the distinctive characteristics of the historically significant Early Ranch style of residential construction which foreshadowed the fully evolved style that became widely popular during the post-World War II period and remained a ubiquitous housing form in Arizona for decades thereafter. This property is considered eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places under Criterion C, at the local level of significance as an excellent example of the Early Ranch style houses constructed in Tempe.[x]

INTEGRITY
Integrity is the ability of a property to convey its significance. To be listed in the Tempe Historic Property Register, a property must be significant under ordinance criteria and it must also possess sufficient integrity to communicate its significance to persons familiar with the property or to the community at large. The integrity of a property is evaluated according to aspects which must be present in different combinations depending on the criteria from which historic significance is derived. For the case at hand, a building derives significance because it embodies the distinctive characteristics of a type of construction. Accordingly, (under Criterion C) the property must maintain integrity of design, workmanship, materials, and feeling in order to convey its significance. As seen in the following discussion, the property exceeds this minimum requirement and retains more than adequate integrity to qualify for designation and listing.[xi]

Location – The Barnes (Conway) House exists in its original location. The Park Tract Subdivision encompasses a collection of historic resources directly associated with the early growth and development of Tempe and the Salt River Valley. The evolution of Tempe over the past 140 years holds national, state, and local significance for its role in the development of the Salt River Valley as a center of commerce and education, as a critical link in the transportation networks during settlement of the Territory, and for its associations with important political figures. These aspects of historical significance and association exist today at the subject property and throughout Park Tract as manifestations of those Arizona pioneers who transformed the desert environment of the Salt River Valley into a community of enduring consequence.[xii]

Situated prominently in the 1200 block of South Ash Avenue, the Barnes (Conway) House occupies land that was included in the boundaries of the original Tempe Townsite in 1894. Although not subdivided until thirty years later, the Park Tract subdivision was never annexed into the corporate limits of Tempe. Rather uniquely it was an integral (yet undeveloped) part of the Tempe from the onset. Today the southern portion of the original Townsite, the historic Park Tract subdivision, is a busy and vibrant residential neighborhood. The City is currently experimenting with various traffic-calming features in the right-of-way, yet the clear and present landmark status of Tempe’s oldest residential neighborhood, Maple Ash, retains its historic identity throughout the community and beyond.[xiii] [xiv]

Design – Design is the composition of elements that constitute the form, plan, space, structure, and style of a property. Because properties change through time, changes may acquire significance in their own right and may not necessarily constitute a loss of design integrity. Although additions have been made to the side and rear of the Barnes (Conway) House, the property maintains the original spatial relationships between major features, visual rhythms, layout and materials, and other features as originally constructed and developed. Design aspects typical of the Early Ranch style remain present in abundance and help maintain this aspect of integrity.[xv]

Setting – Setting is the physical environment of an historic property that illustrates the character of the place. Although integrity of setting is not a condition precedent to designation in this case, the Barnes (Conway) House nevertheless retains connections to the physical environment of its surroundings. The relationship of the house to its surrounding streetscape and landscape, the form and function of adjacent alleyways and walks, and the use of flood irrigation all persist with integrity intact.[xvi]

Materials – An historic property must retain key exterior materials dating from the period of its historic significance. Integrity of materials determines whether or not an authentic historic resource still exists. The Barnes (Conway) House retains key physical elements as they were originally configured to reveal the preferences, to indicate the availability of particular types of materials, and to exemplify technologies characteristic of the Early Ranch style house form. The dominant brick chimney distinguishes the property as a step in the evolution of the ranch house form; this feature and these materials were, relatively speaking, quite rare.[xvii]

Workmanship – Workmanship is the physical evidence of the crafts of a particular culture or people during any given period of history. Workmanship is important because it can furnish evidence of the technology of the craft, illustrate the aesthetic principles of an historic period, and reveal individual, local, regional, or national applications of both technological practices and aesthetic principles. This property conveys physical evidence of the crafts attendant upon the frame construction form of the Early Ranch style house in the early 1940s American Southwest.[xviii]

Feeling – Feeling is a property's expression of the aesthetic or historical sense of a particular period of time. This property expresses an aesthetic sense of its prewar period of significance. The physical features of the property, taken together, are sufficiently intact to convey their significance to someone familiar with the original property as well as to persons throughout the community to whom the property distinguishes itself as historic. Retention and good maintenance of original design, materials, workmanship, and setting as described above is sufficient to create a discernable sense of place or feeling at the historic property.[xix]

Association – Association is the direct link between an important historic event or person and a historic property. Although integrity of association is not a condition precedent to designation in this case, this property nonetheless maintains direct links between important events in community history and remains emblematic of consecutive waves of suburbanization outward from Tempe’s original settlement at the Salt River. Now standing as an anchor at the edge of the historic 1924 Park Tract subdivision, the Barnes (Conway) House recalls the last wave of pre-war development that radiated in bands from the core of the original Townsite.[xx]

Careful evaluation of integrity has been made to inform an opinion of eligibility based on guidance provided in National Register Bulletin 15 “How to Apply the National Register Criteria for Evaluation”. Bulletin 15 states the older or rarer a property becomes, the less integrity must be present for eligibility.[xxi]

The Secretary of the Interior’s Standards for Rehabilitation provide a framework for evaluating the effects of changes on the integrity of a property. The Standards for Rehabilitation define Rehabilitation as "the process of returning a property to a state of utility, through repair or alteration, which makes possible an efficient contemporary use while preserving those portions and features of the property which are significant to its historic, architectural, and cultural values."[xxii]

Finally, we are fortunate to also have policy available from the Arizona State Historic Preservation Office that addresses continued eligibility of a property in consideration of changes in integrity over time. Tempe HPO previously prepared a case study of the proximate Douglass/Gitlis Residence at 1206 South Ash, which developed a detailed evaluation of the cumulative effect of changes on property integrity using criteria provided by the National Park Service and the Arizona State Historic Preservation Office. This work has direct relevance on the evaluation of integrity at the Barnes (Conway) House and has been relied upon to help establish this recommendation.[xxiii] [xxiv]

cultural characteristics OF THE EARLY RANCH STYLE HOUSE

The preceding discussion of significance identified architectural and construction features typical of the Early Ranch style house. The historic 1940 Barnes (Conway) House exemplifies these characteristic features of design, materials, and workmanship while simultaneously illustrating more abstract cultural characteristics of the Early Ranch style house.

The earth-hugging Prairie style houses pioneered by Frank Lloyd Wright, along with the informal Bungalow styles of the early 20th century, paved the way for Early Ranch style houses. California Architect Cliff May is credited with building the first Ranch style house in San Diego in 1932. After World War II, simple, economical Ranch houses were mass-produced to meet the housing needs of returning soldiers and their families. With time, so many Ranch style homes were built in seemingly “cookie-cutter” fashion that the style came to be dismissed as ordinary or slipshod. Nevertheless, many Early Ranch style homes have some of the endearing characteristics of the elegant Cliff May originals: livability, flexibility, and unpretentious character.[xxv]

Livability is manifested in the openness of the floor plan of the Early Ranch style home. Instead of the smaller divided rooms of previous styles, major rooms flow together while large windows bring in outside light and connect with nature. Doors open to patios in the back of the home in a direct fusion of the Spanish Colonial Ranchería and the Modernist house. When land was less expensive, ranch houses abandoned the compact plan and were allowed to stretch out across large lots. Spatial connection between the house and the lot—the essence of livability—is clearly evidenced in the subject property, where views of the grounds are carefully composed, framed for effect, and screened to emphasize a natural setting.[xxvi]

Flexibility is addressed in the Ranch style home by open floor plans that allow rooms to be rearranged to serve multiple purposes. Ranch houses often include separate living and family rooms and formal dining rooms that all could be redressed for other purposes as needed. In addition, the simple trim and style could be made to work with a range of interior decorating schemes, from American Colonial to ultramodern to contemporary casual. Integrated patios serve as extended living space, allowing a continuous functional relationship with the outdoors. Spatial dynamics and adaptability are showcased in the subject property where the modern lifestyle is supported in a setting of understated elegance.[xxvii]

Finally, unpretentious character was addressed in the Ranch style house by the simple, clean lines of the houses themselves. Ranch style houses, with their low roof lines and simple rustic trim, maintained a casual feel and did not dominate their neighborhoods. Entry was not into a grand foyer, but into a simple, disarming and pedestrian space. Interiors designed for ease of movement felt like "home.” This was place-making at its most essential expression. The subject property embodies the charm and character that would evolve to distinguish the Ranch style as the predominant residential expression of the American Sunbelt for decades to come. The historic 1940 Barnes (Conway) House exemplifies all of the prominent character defining features of Ranch house design, materials, and workmanship as well as more abstract cultural characteristics that define the essence of the style.[xxviii]

RESOURCES 
Letter Receipt of Nomination : : 06/27/2011 HPO to Applicant with links to relevant websites 

Research Report to Historic Preservation Commission : : 09/08/2011 Neighborhood Meeting at HPC 

Staff Summary Report to Historic Preservation Commission : : Public Hearing at HPC 

Supplemental Research Regarding Property Changes : : Public Hearing at HPC 

Staff Report to Development Review Commission : : Public Hearing at DRC

Staff Report to City Council : : Public Hearing at CC

Staff Report to City Council : : Public Hearing at CC 

ORDINANCE NO. 2011.26

ENDNOTES 
[i] City of Tempe, Tempe Historic Preservation Office Gage Addition, Park Tract, College View
Subdivisions Historic Property Nomination Information accessed 11/25/2009 10:49 AM online at: http://www.tempe.gov/historicpres/mapleash.htm “The 1995 Maple Ash Neighborhood Plan recognized the unique shape of the neighborhood, roughly a 3:1 ratio of length to width. Because of the long and narrow configuration, over 40% of the parcels occur at the perimeter of the neighborhood. As these edges have developed as part of the neighborhood over time, perimeter parcels are integral to the historic core. A significant number of these edge parcels have taken on non-residential uses and zoning over time, their continued integration with the neighborhood is compromised by intensification through redevelopment. The Plan recognized the vulnerability of perimeter parcels and the importance of maintaining neighborhood scale and character at these fragile edges. The Plan emphasizes preservation of the borders for both historic and contemporary properties as a key to maintaining a buffer or transition zone to the historic neighborhood core.”

[ii] City of Tempe, Tempe General Plan 2030 Adopted: December 4, 2003, Chapter 3, Land Use, Design + Development, Land Use Element, accessed online 08/15/2011 at: http://www.tempe.gov/generalplan/FinalDocument/chapter3.pdf Cultural Resource Area (existing density allowed by zoning) Areas identified on the density map, which are considered culturally significant to the character of Tempe, based on the 2001 Post World War II Subdivision Study. It is desirable to maintain the character of these areas. The underlying zoning should remain the highest appropriate density for these areas. These areas are shown as Cultural Resource Areas, with a projected density to match the zoning at the time this plan is adopted.

[iii] City of Tempe, Zoning and Development Code, amended: October 2, 2008, Part 2 – Establish Zoning
Districts, Map (page 2-30) accessed online 08/15/2011 at: http://www.tempe.gov/zoning/ZDCode/ZDCpart2.pdf The Common Council of the Town of Tempe adopted its first Zoning Ordinance, Ordinance Number 177 on April 14, 1938.

[iv] Arizona Preservation Foundation - Arizona's Most Endangered Historic Places List: online at: http://www.azpreservation.org/c_endangered.php “MAPLE ASH NEIGHBORHOOD Tempe –
Tempe's Maple Ash Neighborhood consists of three subdivisions in proximity to Arizona State University. In this area is the largest concentration of historic resources in the city. The Gage Addition, Park Tract, and College View subdivisions are significant as one of the oldest surviving neighborhoods in Tempe. The area is adjacent to downtown Tempe, Arizona State University, and Tempe St. Luke's Hospital, each of which have exerted pressure on the neighborhood at various times in the past. While the city historic preservation office and a majority of the homeowners in the neighborhood would like to have a historic district zoning overlay placed on the neighborhood, the property is zoned multi-family and many of the owners would prefer to develop their properties.”

[v] City of Tempe, Tempe Historic Preservation Office data accessed 08/15/2011 4:36:52 PM

[vi] City of Tempe, Tempe Historic Preservation Office data accessed 08/15/2011 4:36:52 PM: “The other example is the Redden Rental, located at 922 South Farmer Avenue, in the Mitchell Park East neighborhood, which has lost significant integrity due to alterations and multiple additions.

[vii] Tempe Historical Museum, accessed Monday, November 23, 2009; Tempe Historic Property Survey: Survey Number HPS-345 Douglas/Gitlis Residence http://www.tempe.gov/museum/Tempe_history/properties/hps345.htm [site includes link to Tempe Historic Property Survey].

[viii] City of Tempe, Tempe City Code Chapter 14A – Tempe Historic Privation Ordinance, Ord. No. 95.35, 11-9-95; Ord. No. 2004.42, 1-20-05 accessed 08/15/2011 online at: http://www.tempe.gov/citycode/14aHistoricPreservation.htm Sec. 14A-4. Designation of landmarks, historic properties and historic districts. (a) The following criteria are established for designation of an individual property, building, structure or archeological site: (1) It meets the criteria for listing on the Arizona or national register of historic places; (2) It is found to be of exceptional significance and expresses a distinctive character, resulting from: a. A significant portion of it is at least fifty (50) years old; is reflective of the city's cultural, social, political or economic past; and is associated with a person or event significant in local, state or national history; or b. It represents an established and familiar visual feature of an area of the city, due to a prominent location or singular physical feature; or (3) If it has achieved significance within the past fifty (50) years, it shall be considered eligible for designation as a landmark if it is an integral and critical part of an historic district or demonstrates exceptional individual importance by otherwise meeting or exceeding the criteria specified in paragraphs (1) or (2) of this subsection above. At such time as a landmark becomes fifty (50) years old, it will automatically be reclassified as an historic property.

[ix] U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 2002; Listing a Property in the National Register of Historic Places, How to Apply Criteria for Evaluation http://www.cr.nps.gov/nr/listing.htm “The National Register's standards for evaluating the significance of properties were developed to recognize the accomplishments of all peoples who have made a significant contribution to our country's history and heritage. The criteria are designed to guide State and local governments, Federal agencies, and others in evaluating potential entries in the National Register.”

[x] Tempe Historic Preservation Office – HPO Staff Opinion – preliminary determination of eligibility provided in accordance with Tempe City Code Chapter 14A – Historic Preservation Sect. 4A-4(c)(4) “Upon receipt of an application and placement on the next available commission agenda, the HPO shall compile and transmit to the commission a complete report on the subject property or district. This report shall address the location, condition, age, significance and integrity of historic features and identify potential contributing and noncontributing properties and other relevant information, together with a recommendation to grant or deny the application and the reasons for the recommendation.”

[xi] Garrison, James, 1999; Aspects of Integrity: Generalized Application http://www.tempe.gov/historicpres/Centennial[SampsonTupper]House.html [State Historic Preservation Officer Jim Garrison created a matrix titled “Aspects of Integrity: Generalized Application” to illustrate how to evaluate the integrity of a property. This chart indicates those aspects of integrity that must be present for different property types to remain eligible. For example, to identify aspects necessary for a District to maintain eligibility under criteria C (Design/Construction) enter the chart criteria column at “C – Design/Construction” and move across to the property type column for “District”, to see that four of the seven aspects of integrity must be present to maintain the integrity of a district that has significance under criteria C, they are; Setting, Design, Feeling, and Materials. (see chart below)]

[xii] Janus Associates, Inc., and the Tempe Historical Society, 1983 Tempe Historic Property Survey Tempe History Museum http://www.tempe.gov/museum/Tempe_history/properties/ahpsfile.htm “The survey was a collaborative project produced by, and funded by a grant from the Arizona State Historic Preservation Office. Phase I of the survey (1980-1981) involved identifying more than 350 buildings and structures in Tempe that exhibited potential historical and/or architectural significance. Phase II (1982-1983) involved research and documentation of the 150 most significant resources. More than a dozen volunteers completed most of the research under the direction of Museum Director Susan Wilcox and Cindy Myers of Janus Associates. The research collection that was compiled as a result of this project includes individual files on 158 historic properties. Of those most important buildings and structures that were studied in 1983, only 60% are still standing today.”

[xiii] As evidenced by the abandoned effort to designate the Maple Ash area historic whereby over 100 letters in support of the designation and listing were received by the city from concerned citizens throughout the community.

[xiv] U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, How To Evaluate The Integrity Of A Property accessed 08/15/2011 online at http://www.nps.gov/history/NR/publications/bulletins/nrb15/nrb15_8.htm “Location is the place where the historic property was constructed or the place where the historic event occurred. The relationship between the property and its location is often important to understanding why the property was created or why something happened. The actual location of a historic property, complemented by its setting, is particularly important in recapturing the sense of historic events and persons.” Integrity of location need not be present for the nomination as proposed.

[xv] U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, How To Evaluate The Integrity Of A Property accessed 08/15/2011 online at http://www.nps.gov/history/NR/publications/bulletins/nrb15/nrb15_8.htm “Design is the combination of elements that create the form, plan, space, structure, and style of a property. It results from conscious decisions made during the original conception and planning of a property (or its significant alteration) and applies to activities as diverse as community planning, engineering, architecture, and landscape architecture. Design includes such elements as organization of space, proportion, scale, technology, ornamentation, and materials.” Integrity of design is a condition precedent to the nomination as proposed.

[xvi] U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, How To Evaluate The Integrity Of A Property accessed 08/15/2011 online at http://www.nps.gov/history/NR/publications/bulletins/nrb15/nrb15_8.htm “Setting is the physical environment of a historic property. Whereas location refers to the specific place where a property was built or an event occurred, setting refers to the character of the place in which the property played its historical role. It involves how, not just where, the property is situated and its relationship to surrounding features and open space.” Integrity of setting need not be present for the nomination as proposed.

[xvii] U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, How To Evaluate The Integrity Of A Property accessed 08/15/2011 online at http://www.nps.gov/history/NR/publications/bulletins/nrb15/nrb15_8.htm “Materials are the physical elements that were combined or deposited during a particular period of time and in a particular pattern or configuration to form a historic property. The choice and combination of materials reveal the preferences of those who created the property and indicate the availability of particular types of materials and technologies. Indigenous materials are often the focus of regional building traditions and thereby help define an area's sense of time and place.” Integrity of materials is a condition precedent to the nomination as proposed.

[xviii] U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, How To Evaluate The Integrity Of A Property accessed 08/15/2011 online at http://www.nps.gov/history/NR/publications/bulletins/nrb15/nrb15_8.htm “Workmanship is the physical evidence of the crafts of a particular culture or people during any given period in history or prehistory. It is the evidence of artisans' labor and skill in constructing or altering a building, structure, object, or site. Workmanship can apply to the property as a whole or to its individual components. It can be expressed in vernacular methods of construction and plain finishes or in highly sophisticated configurations and ornamental detailing. It can be based on common traditions or innovative period techniques.” Integrity of workmanship is a condition precedent to the nomination as proposed.

[xix] U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, How To Evaluate The Integrity Of A Property accessed 08/15/2011 online at http://www.nps.gov/history/NR/publications/bulletins/nrb15/nrb15_8.htm

“Feeling is a property's expression of the aesthetic or historic sense of a particular period of time. It results from the presence of physical features that, taken together, convey the property's historic character.” For example, an early ranch-style house retaining original design, workmanship, and materials will relate the feeling of hand craftsmanship and onsite construction methods in residential construction before World War II. Integrity of feeling is a condition precedent to the nomination as proposed.

[xx] U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, How To Evaluate The Integrity Of A Property accessed 08/15/2011 online at http://www.nps.gov/history/NR/publications/bulletins/nrb15/nrb15_8.htm

“Association is the direct link between an important historic event or person and a historic property. A property retains association if it is the place where the event or activity occurred and is sufficiently intact to convey that relationship to an observer. Like feeling, association requires the presence of physical features that convey a property's historic character.” For example, an early ranch-style house on a property whose natural and manmade elements have remained intact since the 1930s will retain its quality of association with the initial development of the subdivision and early suburban expansion within the original townsite. Integrity of association need not be present for the nomination as proposed.

[xxi] National Park Service Bulletin 15: How to Apply the National Register Criteria for Evaluation http://www.nps.gov/history/nr/publications/bulletins/nrb15/ “Comparative information is particularly important to consider when evaluating the integrity of a property that is a rare surviving example of its type. The property must have the essential physical features that enable it to convey its historic character or information. The rarity and poor condition, however, of other extant examples of the type may justify accepting a greater degree of alteration or fewer features, provided that enough of the property survives for it to be a significant resource.”

[xxii] Secretary of the Interior Standards for Rehabilitation accessed online 11/25/2009 12:32 PM at: http://www.nps.gov/history/hps/TPS/tax/rhb/stand.htm “The intent of the Standards is to assist the long-term preservation of a property's significance through the preservation of historic materials and features. As stated in the definition, the treatment "rehabilitation" assumes that at least some repair or alteration of the historic building will be needed in order to provide for an efficient contemporary use; however, these repairs and alterations must not damage or destroy materials, features or finishes that are important in defining the building's historic character.”

[xxiii] Arizona State Historic Preservation Office - Policy Statement For Recommendations Of Eligibility

May, 1992 http://www.tempe.gov/historicpres/Designations/SHPO_Policy_Eligibility_Integrity.pdf “'Because the AFIF initiative allows funds to be awarded to properties listed or determined eligible, the question arises as to how and by whom can these determinations be made, and under what conditions can these determinations be applied to properties with questionable integrity: but demonstrable restorability?

This question becomes more complex as one evaluates the wide range of integrity of listed properties, the evolution of the sheathing issue, and 'variations in viewpoint between National Register policy, Tax Act review. policy, and Certified Local Government (CLG) Design Review Ordinance policy.”

[xxiv] Tempe Historic Preservation Office – Supplemental Research Regarding Property Changes : : 01/14/10 Public Hearing at HPC accessed 07/07/2011 online at –

http://www.tempe.gov/historicpres/Designations/DouglassGitlisResidence/SRR-DGR-PublicHearingHPC.pdf “Tempe Preservation assists owners with managing change to their historic properties in ways that balance preservation objectives with continued viability and enhancement of value. The Douglass/Gitlis Residence is a case study of this balanced change. The property provides a

model for determining impact of proposed additions to historic buildings and establishes important precedent for evaluating effects of change on properties nominated for historic designation and listing in the Tempe Historic Property Register.”

[xxv] May, Cliff and Sunset Magazine Editorial Staff 1947 – Lane Publishing, San Francisco “The form called the ranch house has many roots. They go deep into the Western soil. Some feed directly on the Spanish period. Some draw upon the pioneer years. But the ranch-house growth has never been limited to its roots. It has never known a set style. It was shaped by needs for a special way of living – informal, yet gracious.”

[xxvi] Hess, Alan 2004 – The Ranch House, Harry N. Abrams, New York “A uniquely American Invention, the twentieth-century Ranch House …had come to be one of the most dominant architectural forms of the suburban landscape of the nation. From Los Angeles to Houston to Fort Lauderdale, there are entire communities where Ranch is the only architecture.”

[xxvii] Samon, Katherine Ann Ranch House Style 2003 – Clarkson Potter New York “The things we loved about ranches when we liked Ike are still attractive – perhaps more so – today: the liberation that comes with open-plan living, the casual feel of easy kitchen access, the comfort of having bedrooms and children near at hand, the convenience of one-level living, and the everyday luxury of smooth indoor-outdoor flow.”

[xxviii] Johnson, Paul C., 1958 – Western Ranch Houses by Cliff May, Lane Publishing Menlo Park, CA “Cliff May in the 1930s was building small homes in San Diego and Los Angeles – and he was building for the Southern California climate and for people who thought living would different there. Twenty years ahead of its time, one of his homes was featured in a 1936 issue of the San Diego Union under this heading: ‘Home with a garden in every room.’ The open plan became part of his thinking as building costs rose and living space had to do double duty. Increasing attention to the need for a house to make full use of its surroundings resulted in his teamwork with the West’s leading landscape architects. His use of daylight as a design tool brought about a completely experimental house.”